Definition of Gem? | Types and Properties, Benefits
When you see the word gemstones, you probably mean fancy stones set in jewelry or royal crowns. Fine jewelry, such as the Hope Diamond, crown, scepter, and other famous jewelry, are all examples of gems. We know of course when we see a gemstone, but what is it that technically makes a gemstone a gem? There are many types of gems, and they can be grouped based on how they are made. As mentioned above, gems can be formed from minerals, organic materials, other inorganic substances, or rocks (mixtures of minerals, crystals, and other rocks).
Gems are minerals, rocks, or organic materials that have been popular for their beauty, durability, and rarity. Gems are used in polished to make jewelry or other human decorations. Most of the gems are hard, and some are too soft or can not be used in jewelry, so they are often displayed in museums. Basically, gems are made from minerals; There are some exceptions, however, called organics. Pearls and amber are made by organic processes. That's why they are called Organics gems.
How are Gemstones Made?
The way of making gemstone unique and different for every gem. Generally, They are following the same processes as other minerals and rocks. They are made by one of the main processes listed below:
1. Igneous processes: Gem is formed by the cooling of fluid rock, The melted rock is called magma when underground, and lava is above ground. As the melted rock cools, After that, they settle in a sequence that forms the gem. Here are some examples include diamond, garnet, peridot, quartz, and spinel.
2. Metamorphic processes: Gems are formed by the heating and pressure of pre-existing rocks or underground minerals. Ex. include beryl, lapis lazuli, and alexandrite.
3. Sedimentary processes: Gemstones are formed by the deposition and pressure of sediments. Ex include opal, turquoise and malachite.
4. Organic processes: Gemstones are formed by processes carried out by living organisms. Examples include pearls, amber, and coral.